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Usersd November 30, 2012 09:54 AM

Custom fan controller - Technical advice needed
 
Hey everyone! This is my first time posting in this forum. I'm sorry if this is the wrong section, but I couldn't find an "experiments" subforum.

I tried another hardware forum I frequent to get some help, but didn't have any luck. I'm sorry if this is the wrong section, couldn't find an "experiments" subforum though.

So i thought "What the heck, the folks at hardwarecanucks seem helpful, It/they helped more than a few times, maybe it's time I join the community, and get some tips on my wacky experiments"

*This is a pasted version of my post in former forums*

Quote:

Hey people.

I'm modding my case yet again, I will cut it up, change the cage locations, do a whole new front, change the power LEDs, put some new power buttons, drill some fan mounts, coat of paint, you know the drill.

Something came across my mind though. I figured out I can make a super cheap and effective fan controller out of a potentiometer, or variable resistor.

Now, i can't be arsed to order in a fan controller, since i don't have any in my vicinity. I'd like to approach the pot idea though, it'll only set me back a couple of cents. Maybe a few bucks for some 3-pin connnectors. I also like the challenge of homemade modding, so the "I made it myself" factor is also a pretty good incentive!


What i'd like to know is, can i put one potentiometer controlling various fans, let's say 6 for example? What specs would the pot need? Could they be daisy chained?

I have soldering know how, just not alot of experience with component calculations. Anything i can learn off of this will be useful for future projects.

Any help and explanations would be appreciated!

Update:

I'm guessing the main thing here would be not to surpass the amperage limit of the potentiometer. So considering for example a 3w/20ohm pot running of a 12v line, after calculations it would have a limit of about 25miliamps I think.

If a daisy chain of fans surpassed that amount of amperage, then i'd need a higher wattage pot. Is that relatively correct or not really?
So yeah, I'd like some tips on the above situation if anyone is able to help. When i'm done and if it (hopefully) works, i'll probably throw a guide in the How to's section of the forums! Probably along with some LED strip dimmer I'm thinking of doing... :whistle:

Ardric November 30, 2012 05:32 PM

Using a big power rheostat (potentiometer wired as a variable resistor) is really the wrong way to do it. It's inefficient; it throws off a lot of heat into the case, which is counter-productive. It increases the power supply impedance to the fan motors, which they can cope with but don't really want.

Most fan controllers supply 12VDC but use pulse-width modulation (PWM), where they switch the 12V power on and off really rapidly, and the percent time in the ON state (called the duty cycle) is varied to control the fan speed. This is much more power-efficient than a rheostat and makes less heat. It's still not a very nice thing to do to the fans though. Fans are motors, and motors are inductors, so in theory the motor should be ok smoothing those power spikes out again. But in practice, fan motors are trying to be more clever than that, and it's hard to be clever when someone keeps turning your power supply off. That's why we're moving to 4-wire fan connections with a separate PWM wire... by seperating the control signal from the power signal, the fan motor can have more complex electronics and do more neato things.

Generally the power limit to a rheostat is thermal dissipation, aka heat output, and it's measured in Watts. Work out how much current max you'll connect to the rheostat, then use watts=volts*amps to find out how much wattage that is. A 3W unit can handle 3/12=0.25 A (250 mA) of current at 12V, assuming all the power ends up in the rheostat and none in the fan. That's a good assumption to be sure you always have some safety headroom. But 250 mA isn't all that much. A 3W rheostat is way too small for a chain of 6 big fans.

Usersd December 1, 2012 06:03 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by Ardric (Post 674604)
Using a big power rheostat (potentiometer wired as a variable resistor) is really the wrong way to do it. It's inefficient; it throws off a lot of heat into the case, which is counter-productive. It increases the power supply impedance to the fan motors, which they can cope with but don't really want.

Most fan controllers supply 12VDC but use pulse-width modulation (PWM), where they switch the 12V power on and off really rapidly, and the percent time in the ON state (called the duty cycle) is varied to control the fan speed. This is much more power-efficient than a rheostat and makes less heat. It's still not a very nice thing to do to the fans though. Fans are motors, and motors are inductors, so in theory the motor should be ok smoothing those power spikes out again. But in practice, fan motors are trying to be more clever than that, and it's hard to be clever when someone keeps turning your power supply off. That's why we're moving to 4-wire fan connections with a separate PWM wire... by seperating the control signal from the power signal, the fan motor can have more complex electronics and do more neato things.

Generally the power limit to a rheostat is thermal dissipation, aka heat output, and it's measured in Watts. Work out how much current max you'll connect to the rheostat, then use watts=volts*amps to find out how much wattage that is. A 3W unit can handle 3/12=0.25 A (250 mA) of current at 12V, assuming all the power ends up in the rheostat and none in the fan. That's a good assumption to be sure you always have some safety headroom. But 250 mA isn't all that much. A 3W rheostat is way too small for a chain of 6 big fans.

Wow, a lot more detailed than I was expecting! And It actually makes sense too, that's why most fan controllers don't mindlessly heat up with 6 or 7 channels, a rheostat being basically an adjustable resistance, has to dissipate heat, PWM works differently.

PWM seems the way to go for now then, and AFAIK, it's a simple circuit and there are a lot of guides specifically for PC fans, I might take a jab at it, just by looking at the schematic the electronics store downtown should have all the components I need. Making one to control my biggest fans in the case (1x140mm, 2x120mm) should be fairly simple, and should end up much better than using the big old rheostat.
The LED driver i was thinking about doing would involve a simple PWM circuit with a 555 timer I found in various places on the interwebs too, to act as a dimmmer.

Well, thanks for all the info, learned a couple of useful things today thanks to you! :thumb:


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